Volume 16, Issue 5 (2016)                   MCEJ 2016, 16(5): 243-252 | Back to browse issues page

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shakerkhatibi M. Estimation of Emission Rate and Simiulation of Styrene and Acrilonitryle Disperssion Around an ABS plant. MCEJ 2016; 16 (5) :243-252
URL: http://mcej.modares.ac.ir/article-16-1782-en.html
Abstract:   (4412 Views)
Increasing pollution levels due to rapid industrialization and urbanization are now causes of major concern in industrializing countries. Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Equipment leaks in chemical and petroleum processing industries are responsible for significant amount of emissions. Even if each individual leak is generally small, it is the largest source of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum industries and chemical manufacturing facilities. Styrene and Acrylonitrile are two major components in the streams of ABS plant of Tabriz Petrochemical Complex which is expected to be released to the atmosphere through various sources such as equipment leaks and tank venting. In the first step of this study the major sources of pollutants emission in the ABS plant were identified considering the PDF and PID of the plant. Then the emission rate of each source was estimated using the emission factors presented by USEPA. An emissions factor is a representative value that attempts to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the atmosphere with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. Emission factors are powerful tools for policy makers as they can be used to relate emissions and concentrations. In the last step, the estimated emission rates were used as the input of Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Version 3 (ISCST3) model to predict the ground level concentration of Styrene and Acrylonitrile around the ABS plant. The ISCST3 is steady-state Gaussian plume model which can be used to assess pollutant concentrations from a wide variety of sources associated with an industrial complex. The model is generally applicable for near-field (within 10 km) impact assessment of air pollutant in meteorologically and topographically uncomplex conditions. Among the 54 pumps, 23 compressors and other equipments of the plant, 11 pumps, 8 compressors and 6 storage tanks were identified as the emission sources of considered pollutants. The emission rates of pumps and compressors were estimated using the emission factors presented in AP-42 document of USEPA. The emission estimation of Styrene and Acrylonitrile from six storage tanks has been done using USEPA standard regulatory storage tanks emission model (TANKS 4.0.9a). The emission software program TANKS is developed using emission factors presented in AP-42. The results showed that the compressors are the significant sources of considered pollutants which release about 586 g/day Styrene and 2506 g/day Acrylonitrile to the atmosphere. The emission rate of Styrene and Acrylonitrile from pumps were estimated 36 g/day and 94 g/day, respectively. The results of using TANKS model indicated that Styrene and Acrylonitrile emission rates are 7 g/day and 22 g/day, respectively. The estimated emission rates were used as the input of ISCST3 model to find the ground level concentrations of considered pollutants around ABS plant. The results showed that the maximum level of Styrene was 646 µg/m3 which is below the Reference Concentration (Rfc). In the case of Acrylonitrile the maximum level of estimated concentration was 272 µg/m3 which is higher than Rfc. The implementation of a leak detection and repair (LDAR) program or modifying/replacing leaking equipment with “leakless” components were recommended to reduce the emissions from equipment leaks of ABS plant.
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Article Type: Original Manuscript | Subject: -------
Received: 2015/11/30 | Accepted: 2016/01/17 | Published: 2017/02/19

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