Volume 16, Issue 1 (2016)                   MCEJ 2016, 16(1): 117-126 | Back to browse issues page

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Ayati B. Analysis of degradation of Acid Orange 7 by Electro-Fenton process with graphite cathode coated by carbon nanotubes. MCEJ 2016; 16 (1) :117-126
URL: http://mcej.modares.ac.ir/article-16-1702-en.html
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Abstract:   (5426 Views)
Azo dyes constitute the largest class of dyes and contains one or various azo groups conjugated with aromatic systems such as acid azo dyes which have sulfonic groups causing strong attachment to the cationic groups of fibers. The characteristics of these materials are high color intensity and visibility in very low concentrations, complex chemical structures, and light resistance and hard to biodegradability, variability in pH range and above of these they have high carcinogenic and mutagenic potential. Generally, the physical, chemical and biological methods are considered as textile wastewater treatment techniques such as electrocoagulation, absorption, advanced oxidation, Fenton, photo-Fenton, photoelectrochemical and photoelectrocatalytic. Electro-Fenton is an indirect oxidation process and is based on in situ electrochemical generation of peroxide hydrogen due to electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen next to graphite cathode. In this process hydroxide radicals are generated by reaction of hydrogen peroxide and iron ions in acidic condition. Hydroxide radicals are the most powerful radicals with high oxidation potential lead to degrade organic matters into simple compounds like water and carbon dioxide. Recently carbonic material like carbon felt, graphite, activated carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, carbonic sponge and graphite-PTFE are used to improve electro-Fenton process. Enhancement of surface area, reaction rate and electron transfer are the main reasons which Carbon nanotubes are used to improve electrochemical production of hydrogen peroxide in electro-Fenton process. Dye removal increased at initial reaction time by increasing current intensity, aeration rate and electrode surface due to enhancing electro-Fenton regents, meanwhile it decreased with increasing pH and electrolyte concentration. Reduction in dye degradation is usually caused by scavenging role of hydrogen peroxide and iron ions due to reaction of these compounds with hydroxyl radicals which decreased its concentration in reactor. Dye degradation increase by enhancement of Initial dye concentration from 35 to 100 mg/L but when initial dye concentration increased further to 200 mg/L, degradation rate was reduced. On the other hand energy consumption reduced by decreasing current intensity from 2 to 1 mA/cm2 and enhancing electrode surface from 30 to 90 cm2. It has been shown that carbon nanotubes coated on graphite cathode could enhance dye removal rate by increasing hydrogen peroxide concentration due to increase electrode surface area, electron transfer and reaction rate. The results showed that dye and COD removal efficiency was obtained 98% and 95% after 180 and 360 minutes respectively at the optimal condition of effective parameters such as current density of 1 mA/cm2, pH of 6.5, no aeration, initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L, electrode surface of 90 cm2, electrolyte concentration of 0.01 M, temperature of 25 ◦C and energy consumption of 0.13 KWh/ppm. Electro-Fenton process seems to be an economic and environmental friendly process to remove the toxicity of the persistent organic pollutants from water due to generation of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. It has been demonstrated that electro-Fenton process with the use of stainless steel anode and graphite cathode coated with carbon nanotube is a very effective and operative method to degrade Acid Orange 7.
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Article Type: Original Manuscript | Subject: -------
Received: 2014/10/15 | Accepted: 2015/08/30 | Published: 2016/03/20

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