Volume 17, Issue 4 (2017)                   MCEJ 2017, 17(4): 199-212 | Back to browse issues page

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dahrazma B. Effects of Soil Washing by Fe3O4 Nanoparticles in the Batch and Continouse Flow Configurations on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil and Nanofluid. MCEJ 2017; 17 (4) :199-212
URL: http://mcej.modares.ac.ir/article-16-1452-en.html
1- Associate professor/Shahrood University o
Abstract:   (4043 Views)
Remediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals is an important environmental issue which attracted many attentions and was evaluated by several methods. It is highly desirable to apply suitable remedial methods to reduce the risk of heavy metal contamination in soils. Development of new low-cost, efficient and environmental friendly remediation technologies is the main goal of the recent research activities in environmental science and technology. Using nanotechnology in removal of environmental pollutions is of modern and applicable methods. One of the early generations of nanoscale technologies in the field of environment is the use of iron nanoparticles as a ground for sorption of pollutants. These nanoparticles are nontoxic, inexpensive, and very strong absorbents.The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cadmium removal by soil washing with iron (III) oxide nano particles (Fe3O4), stabilized with Polyacrylic Acid (PAA) as nanofluid, on physicochemical characteristics of nanofluid and soil in two defined systems including batch and continuous flow configurations. For this purpose, after complete removal of Cd from the soil in both systems under the optimized conditions, the effects of removal on the physicochemical characteristics of soil and nanofluid including pH, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solid were assessed. The results of XRD and SEM of soil samples and also zeta potential and size distribution of nanofluid, before and after the removal were investigated. To ensure the absence of other pollutants and elimination of any interaction between soil pollutants, the soil was prepared with clean standard materials and afterwards it was contaminated with cadmium solution prepared by cadmium nitrate. The optimum conditions for cadmium removal in the batch system was as follows: nanofluid concentration=500 ppm, pH=6.5, contact time=24 hr and the ratio of contaminated soil mass (gr) to nanofluid volume (mL) =1:150 . completely Cd removal in continouse flow configuration obtained in the following conditions: nanofluid concentration=500 ppm, pH=6.5, contact time=24 hr, and the flow rate =0.5 mL/min. Cadmium content in the nanofluid after remediation was determined with UV spectrophotometer by using APDC complexes in Tween 80 media. As per the results of this study, pH of the soil samples in the both batch and continuous flow configuration increased from 7.8 to 8.55 and 8.35 respectively. pH of nanofluid increased from 6.5 to 6.8 in the continuous flow configuration and 7.59 in the batch system. EC and TDS of the nanofluid decreased from 1.66 mS/cm and 1110 mg/L to 1.049 mS/cm and 699 mg/L in the continuous flow configuration and these parameters also reached respectively to 0.952 mS/cm and 635 mg/L in the batch system. Soil washing using Fe3O4 nanoparticle did not changed remarkably EC and TDS of the contaminated soil. Nanoparticles size with highest frequency in nanofluid before removal was 205 nmand after Cd removal reached to 23 nm and 29 nm in the continuous flow configuration and batch system respectively, which was an indication of the sorption of nanoparticles with grater size to the soil during the soil washing process. Zeta potential values of influent and effluent of nanofluid from continuous flow configuration and batch system were -61.5, -51.3, and -37.4 mV respectively. The structural changes of soil samples after removal in the both systems were assessed by XRD and SEM tests which confiremed the sorption of nanoparticles through the soil washing.
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Received: 2016/06/4 | Accepted: 2017/03/13 | Published: 2017/10/23

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