Volume 19, Issue 5 (2019)                   MCEJ 2019, 19(5): 73-83 | Back to browse issues page

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Arami Fadafan1 M, jafari nodoushan E, Azhdary Moghadam M. investigate relationship to determine the distance between the first and second aerator over the chute overflow based on the minimum air concentration (Case study of Kurdistan Azad Dam). MCEJ 2019; 19 (5) :73-83
URL: http://mcej.modares.ac.ir/article-16-28668-en.html
1- Ph.d. Graduated, Department of civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering , Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2- Department of Civil Engineering, Bijar Branch, Islamic Azad University,Bijar, , e.jafari@iaubijar.ac.ir
3- Department of Civil Engineering, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
Abstract:   (4144 Views)
The increase of population and demand for water, agriculture and energy cause a rapid increase in construction of the dam has been.  Moreover, the increase of dam height to increase storage and estimate the need for water cause increase the velocity of water over the spillway has been.  Spillways, chutes and bottom outlets are important hydraulic structures for dam safety. Due to high velocities combined with low pressures, cavitation damages may occur on chute bottom and cause major damages or endanger the dam stability. Damage experience for flows in spillway tunnels and chutes indicates that damage becomes significant when water velocities exceed 30m/s, this velocity or head can be considered as the borderline for high velocity or high head flows. Introducing air to high-speed flow is necessary to prevent pressure reduction and its events such as cavitation. It is possible to protect spillway surfaces from cavitation damages using aerator devices. Usually, the air entering the flow is not reached to the bed chute.  It is necessary to install the first aerated according to topographic conditions and cavitation index at the appropriate location. By determining the process of changing the air concentration of the bed, the distance between the two aerators can be determined. The air in the flow causes the compression and damping that cause Bursting bubbles. In result, the damage caused by cavitation is reduced.  So cavitation investigations will be necessary and need to reduce and prevent cavitation damages. The length of the flow jet has a fundamental role in determining the distance between two aerators. With increases, the length of the jump, the contact surface of the upper and lower layers of the jet is in more contact with the air and affects the amount of air entering the flow. The absorbed air is removed from the flow after the Jet collision. By determining the minimum concentration of air in the bed, an optimal distance between the two aerations can be selected to prevent cavitation damage. Select the minimum air concentration of bed is based on the relationship provided by Wood (1983). It means that the concentration of average air in the stream is higher, which causes the flow of bulking and requires taller walls for the sides of the shut Which is not economically feasible. The variation in the air concentration of the bed can only be considered as a function of the length of the jump flow and the upstream heights. Creating a suitable duct for providing A negative cavity pressure Lead to the better performance that causes increases the distance between aeration. So use of aerators in suitable places and the entrance of air to water flow is a most effective way to reduce this damage, therefore in this study, an equation has been derived to estimate the distance between two aerators base on 1200 data of 90 experiments with R2 more than 0.84.  results this study have been compared and investigated for aerator of Azad dam.
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Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Hydraulical Structures
Received: 2018/12/27 | Accepted: 2019/12/30 | Published: 2019/12/31

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